Psilocybe cyanescens Occasionally called wavy hats, blue meanies, or maybe as the highly effective Psilocybe) are strong psychedelic
The main compounds responsible for its side effects are psilocin and psilocybin. It belongs to the household Hymenogastraceae.
According to a specimen she’d recently gathered for Kew Gardens,
Elsie Wakefield published an official explanation of the species in 1946 at the Transactions of British Mycological Society.
She had started collecting the species as earlier as 1910.
The mushroom isn’t generally viewed as being dangerous to adults. Considering that all of the psychoactive ingredients in P.
cyanescens are peppermint, the fruiting bodies can be produced non-psychoactive through parboiling, allowing culinary usage.
Nevertheless, since nearly all folks find them quite bitter and they’re way too small to have excellent nutritive value, this’s not often done.
Qualities of Psilocybe cyanescens
Psilocybe cyanescens carries a hygrophanous pileus (cap) which is caramel into chestnut brown when hydrated,
fading to pale buff, or perhaps slightly yellow when dehydrated.
The color of the pileus is hardly ever found in mushrooms outside the P. cyanescens species complex.
Virtually all regions of the mushroom, like the cap along with Lamellae (gills, under the cap),
can stain blue when touched or perhaps otherwise upset, most likely as a consequence of the oxidation of psilocin.
The lamellae are in reality adnate and light-weight brownish to profound purple-brown in maturity, with less heavy gill edges.
There’s no unique annulus, but immature P. cyanescens specimens will have a cobwebby veil,
leaving an annular zone of maturity. Both the odor and sample are farinaceous.
P. cyanescens contains tender, elliptical spores, which evaluate 2 – twelve x five-eight
According to several writers, the holotype compilation belonging to the species at Kew Gardens showcased zero pleurocystidia.
Still, North American collections are characterized by frequent clavate mucronate pleurocystidia. Nevertheless,
pleurocystidia are contained in the holotype compilation (although not ready to detect since hymenium is collapsed).
In European collections of P. cyanescens, pleurocystidia are popular, and their design is truly the same as those broadly
known employing the United States.
Fresh sporocarps in addition to mycelia of P. cyanescens usually bruise blueish or perhaps blue-green precisely where damaged,
in addition to the discoloration is still apparent after drying.
This staining is most apparent on the stem (that is white-colored when undisturbed). Still,
it can certainly also occur on several other regions of the mushroom, which includes the gills, cap, in addition to mycelium.
This staining is mainly to the oxidation of psilocin. (Psilocybin can not be oxidized right but is rapidly
converted via enzymatic action to psilocin at harm websites that could likewise be oxidized, for that reason, even specimens with small psilocin yet typically blue.)
An extremely near relative of P. cyanescens is Psilocybe allenii (described within 2012)
, previously referred to as Psilocybe cyanofriscosa,
a mushroom located in Washington and California] It might be distinguished by macromorphological
functions and also sequencing of rDNA ITS molecular marker.
It is usually hard or perhaps impossible to differentiate between users of the P. cyanescens complex except
by variety without resorting to microscopic or molecular characters.
 Both mushrooms generally have similar clinics and appearances and bear a slight resemblance to each other like those inexperienced mushroom seekers might mistake the two.
The two species can develop side-by-side, which could promote the chance of confusion. The two mushrooms possess different colored spores, building a spore print important to appropriate identification.
Habitat and distribution of Psilocybe cyanescens increases now principally on wood chips
, especially in and on the perimeter of mulched grow beds in urbanized regions, but could certainly also develop on some
other lignin-rich substrates. P. cyanescens does not grow on a substrate that is not lignin-rich.  Fruitings
have been claimed in organic manners previously (although most appear to be migrations from mulched grow beds.)
The species does not generally develop on mulch which is made from bark.
Within the USA, P. cyanescens mostly take place over the Pacific Northwest,
stretching out south into the San Francisco Bay Region. It can also be present in regions like Western Europe,
Central Europe, and West Asia (Iran).
The range in which P. cyanescens happens is quickly growing, particularly in areas where it’s not native as the use of mulch to control weeds has been popularized. This quick expansion of scope might be in part to the basic expedient of P. cyanescens
mycelium owning the division networking of woodchip vendors and shipped out on a significant scale with business mulch.
It’s been acknowledged to this fruit of Spring on the East Coast belonging to the United States.
Even though it’s been speculated which P. cyanescens’ native habitat is truly the coniferous woodlands of northwestern
United States or maybe coastal dunes inside the PNW, the kind specimen had been discussed from mulch beds inside
Kew Gardens, and there is no commonly accepted motive of P. cyanescens habitat that was classic.
Fruiting is dependent on a fall inside temperature.
Psilocybe cyanescens usually fruits gregariously or maybe in cespitose clusters,
often in exceptional numbers. 100,000 P. cyanescens fresh fruits were at once discovered growing within a racetrack within the south of England. Solitary fruits are occasionally also found.
Indole articles The new fruits of P. cyanescens are proven to consist of several different indole alkaloids such as biocytin.,
psilocin, and psilocybin] been found P. cyanescens mycelium will have detectable levels of psilocybin and psilocin,
however only after the development of primordia.
That was, nonetheless, brought on by the stage in which Gartz didn’t evaluate the actual P. cyanescens, however P. serbica.
North American fruiting systems of P. cyanescens are demonstrated to consist of between 0.66 % and 1.96%
complete indole articles by dried weight up. European fruiting systems have been proven to have between 0.39 percent and 0.75% complete indole content by dry weight.
North American specimens of P. cyanescens are, in reality, among the most powerful psychedelic mushrooms.
Its potency would mean owners of recreational drugs commonly desire it in these kinds of areas where it grows naturally.